(NPL, CEA, CMI, ENEA, IFIN-HH, PTB, SCK•CEN, STUK)
Start month: Sep 2014, end month: Aug 2017
The aim of this work package is to improve the characterisation of materials and items at decommissioning sites, prior to disposal. A variety of techniques will be investigated to achieve this goal, and these will address important aspects of characterisation including: (i) initial assessment by (where possible) remote measurement, (ii) planned and statistically robust sampling, (iii) radiochemical analysis and measurement of sampled material, and (iv) the derivation of improved scaling factors for future work. These outcomes provide feedback for future decommissioning work, so that each iteration of the assessment-sampling-analysis/measurement-scaling factors cycle enables the next iteration to be carried out more effectively with the ultimate aim of continually improving the process in order to better utilise the resources available to carry out such decommissioning work and to more accurately sentence the waste arising from decommissioning of nuclear facilities.Task 1.1: Mapping inside nuclear facilities
Task 1.2: Sampling strategies for radiochemical analyses
Task 1.3: Radiochemical analysis procedures
Task 1.4: Scale factors
(ENVINET, CMI, JRC, PTB, REG(ENVINET))
Start month: Sep 2014, end month: Aug 2017
Pre-selection of solid waste generated during the decommissioning of nuclear facilities into streams is very important, and correctness and accuracy of this measurement has a direct impact on the cost-effectiveness of waste disposal; after the measurement has been done, a decision is taken as to whether the measured material is to be sent to a free release facility (for possible release to the environment), or to a radioactive waste repository.
The aim of this work package is to develop a standardised traceable method for the segregation of waste materials prior to either free release or storage in a radioactive waste repository. A measurement facility for segregation of solid waste materials will be designed and built and experimental measurements and Monte Carlo calculations performed to optimise metrological parameters. The facility will be calibrated using reference materials and standard sources traceable to national standards .Task 2.1: Design of measurement facility for segregation of materials
Task 2.2: Measurement software development
Task 2.3: Measurement and calibration procedures
(CMI, ENEA, ENVINET, IFIN-HH, JRC, NPL, REG(ENVINET))
Start month: Sep 2014, end month: Aug 2017
The aim of this work package is to develop accurate and radionuclide-specific measurement methods for free release of solid materials and objects in the environment at decommissioning of nuclear facilities.
Within the JRP ENV09 a standardised traceable method for free release measurement was developed. The free release measurement facility was designed based on low background spectrometric measurement using mechanically cooled germanium detectors and a special low background measuring chamber and the testing facility was built to verify appropriateness of the design for free release measurement.
In this work package, the designed free release measurement facility will be built on a decommissioning site, tested and put into operation for measurement of real wastes. Huge amounts of solid waste is present on decommissioning sites. The sensitivity and capacity (throughput) of the measurement will be tested and optimised. Also measurement software will be improved for real on site measurement. The free release measurement procedure will be complemented with passive neutron counting.
A standardised method for scanning of wastes before the free release measurement will be developed enabling calculation of accurate self-absorption correction for each batch of measured wastes. A testing facility for scanning of wastes will be built to verify the developed method.Task 3.1: Free release measurement facility implementation
Task 3.2: Measurement software improvement
Task 3.3: Scanning of wastes
(NPL, ANDRA, EDF, ENEA, LNE, MIKES)
Start month: Sep 2014, end month: Aug 2017
The aim of this work package is to develop and implement methods for monitoring the infrastructure of radioactive waste repositories and also the stored wastes. It will involve further development of the gas monitors developed in the JRP ENV09, research into novel temperature measurement methods (e.g. radiation-resistant optical fibres and acoustic thermometry), and research into calorimetric methods for measuring the thermal power of waste packages.Task 4.1: Radioactive gas monitors for waste repositories
Task 4.2: On-line on-site measurements of radiocarbon emissions using a mid-infrared spectroscope
Task 4.3: Sensors for monitoring of repository sites
Task 4.4: Acoustic thermometry device for temperature measurements
Task 4.5: Measurement of thermal power of radioactive waste packages before repository
(PTB, CMI, ENEA, IFIN-HH, JRC, NPL)
Start month: Sep 2014, end month: Feb 2017
The aim of this work package is to develop reference materials and standard sources for testing and calibration of facilities and devices developed or used in WP1, WP2, WP3 and WP4. These materials and sources shall be traceable to national standards for activity of radionuclides.Task 5.1: Reference materials and standard sources for segregation of materials and for free release measurement
Task 5.2: Reference materials and standard sources for radiochemical analysis
Task 5.3: Gaseous reference materials
Task 5.4: Reference materials and standard sources for surface contamination monitors
(ENEA, all JRP-Partners, REG(ENVINET))
Start month: Sep 2014, end month: Aug 2017
The aim of this work package is to ensure that the impact and benefits of this JRP will be realised. This work package will include submission of papers in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at European conferences as well as contribution to international and national standard committees. Stakeholder and user groups will be established and workshops specifically aimed at the nuclear decommissioning industry sector will be organised. Information and training material will be disseminated via the public JRP internet website, which includes material such as training and demonstration. Links to European (e.g. CEC) and international (e.g. IAEA, IRPA) policy makers and standardisation organisations (e.g. CEN, CENELEC, IEC, ISO) will be established. The JRP-Partners will provide and accept guest scientists and develop training documents. Exploitation of the results will possibly result in licensing of measurement methods for in-situ applications. The test of developed methods is planned via demonstration campaign with stakeholder’s involvement (This will be done during the planned workshops using PowerPoint presentations and videos showing the main results of testing and operation of the developed methods and instrumentation).Task 6.1 Knowledge Transfer
Task 6.2 Training
Task 6.3 Exploitation
(CMI, all JRP-Partners, REG(ENVINET))
Start month: Sep 2014, end month: Aug 2017
Task 7.1: JRP and REG management
Task 7.2: Project meetings
Task 7.3: Reporting
The aim of this task is to devise techniques for mapping the internal contamination within a given nuclear facility in order to inform the subsequent strategy for decommissioning the facility. These techniques will include the determination of contamination by a variety of methods, including
- surface contamination determination,
- identification of localised hot-spots by using detectors (cadmium-zinc telluride, lanthanum bromide, etc.),
- in-situ gamma spectrometry,
- determination of depth distribution of radionuclides,
- remote alpha detection.
Improvement and enhancement of these techniques to determine the levels and location of gamma, alpha and alpha/gamma contaminated areas will better inform the planning of sampling for further radiochemical analysis and the overall decommissioning strategy.
The aim of this task is to ensure that the sampling of materials prior to and during decommissioning is carried out in a statistically valid manner, without taking excessive numbers of samples, but limiting the risk of operating sampling strategies of returning false negative. Such strategies will be based on Bayesian analysis techniques, and sampling protocols defined in US EPA documents MARSAME, MARSSIM and MARLAP. In addition boundary values for data quality objectives (DQOs) may also be set.
The aim of this task is to build on the work completed in JRP ENV09 on the automated analysis of radioactive material, which has established dissolution procedures for concrete, separation procedures for 90Sr, 99Tc, uranium isotopes, plutonium isotopes and 241Am as well as measurement procedures for alpha- and beta-emitters. The need, therefore, is to be able to measure a wider range of radionuclides in a more diverse set of matrices. It is impossible to deal with all situations, so a selection of activities forms part of this task. Although there are a wide range of radionuclides for measurement, many already have established procedures, so the long-lived and less common radionuclides are candidates and the list of potential radionuclides is drawn from radionuclides that are significant in waste disposal, in that they persist in significant quantities beyond 100 years:
14C, 36Cl, 41Ca, 53Mn, 59Ni, 63Ni, 90Sr, 93Zr, 93Mo, 99Tc, 107Pd, 113mCd, 129I, 135Cs, 137Cs, 151Sm, 226Ra, 230Th, 232Th, 234U, 235U, 236U, 238U, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am
Isotope dilution tracers that will be used in support of this task include (but are not limited to):
85Sr, 95mTc, 229Th, 232U, 236Pu/242Pu, 243Am as well as (depending on availability) 145Sm, 237U, 236gNp, and 237Pu
The aim of this task is to apply the principles set out in ISO 21238:2007 (Scaling Factor Method to Determine the Radioactivity of Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste Packages Generated at Nuclear Power Plants) to the measurement of contaminated areas in decommissioning sites. This standard addresses the measurement of packaged waste, and not individual areas, but the principles of operation remain the same. Drawing on the nuclide list in task 1.3 and task 5.2, as well as the sampling principles laid out in task 1.2, together with existing databases in Germany, USA, Japan and others, scaling factors for particular sites for some of the listed radionuclides (14C, 36Cl, 41Ca, 53Mn, 59Ni, 63Ni, 90Sr, 93Zr, 93Mo, 99Tc, 107Pd, 113mCd, 129I, 135Cs, 137Cs, 151Sm, 226Ra, 232Th, 234U, 235U, 236U, 238U, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am) will be derived and evaluated.
The aim of this task is to design measurement facility for segregation of materials for potential free release or repository emplacement. Although the pre-selection measurement technique does not have to be so sensitive and spectrometric as for free release measurement, the facility should be designed so that no more than 5% of materials determined for free release measurement are returned. The designed facility should be modular to make it possible to have as many measurement modules in the measurement line as are needed for the required capacity of pre-selection. The flow-through measurement procedure must be very effective to ensure pre-selection of about ten tonnes per day using one measurement module. This will be ensured by advanced measurement device construction and sophisticated evaluation software creation.
For sensitive and accurate measurement, sophisticated software must be developed to ensure stability of the equipment (control software), accuracy of the measurement (calibration software) and correctness of the measurement (measurement software).
The aim of this task is to develop software for the measurement facility for segregation of solid wastes to free release measurement or repository acceptance measurement. The software will be tested using both spiked reference materials and standard sources developed in WP5 (D5.1.1, D5.1.2) and real waste materials from decommissioning.
To reach the required sensitivity and accuracy at the measurement for segregation of wastes into streams (free release measurement or repository acceptance measurement), precise efficiency calibration must be performed for different types of measured waste materials (steel pipes, aluminium plates, cables, building materials, plastics).
The aim of this task is to create a procedure for detection efficiency calibration of the facility using reference materials and standard sources developed in WP5. It also aims to provide a decision criterion (free release or repository) on the procedure for measurement of wastes.
The aim of this task is to implement the free release measurement facility (FRMF) developed and designed in the JRP ENV09 on site to test and improve the measurement and calibration methods in real conditions with respect to stakeholders’ and end-users’ needs obtained from JRP ENV09 workshops.
The free release measurement facility will be built on the JRC-Ispra or/and NPP Sellafield site (decided at the start of the JRP). The facility will be tested and put into operation. Improved ‘on site’ calibration and measurement methods will be developed.
The aim of this task is to improve algorithms developed for free release testing measurement facility in JRP ENV09, adapt these algorithms and create complex software for routine free release measurement at the facility installed on site within task 3.1. Algorithms will take into consideration end users needs and will be tested using spiked reference materials and standard sources developed as well as real waste materials.
The improvement will comprise measurement and control software, indication of hot-spots, determination of homogeneity of measured material, calculation of scale factors, and also use information about absorption of the radiation in the measured material obtained using the method developed in task 3.3. The complex software for free release measurement will be tested on site and implemented for routine free release measurement.
The main role of REG(ENVINET) in this task is to create software for control, calibration, spectra measurement and evaluation, and results presentation in free release facility installed on decommissioning site. The role of CMI, ENEA and NPL is to provide REG(ENVINET) with physical support for the software creation.
The aim of this task is to develop a method for scanning of wastes prepared for free release measurement to obtain information about absorption of gamma radiation in measured material and create a method for self-absorption correction. This method will be used for measurement efficiency calculation and activity of radionuclides determination.
A testing scanning facility will be designed and built. Experimental measurements will be performed with waste materials and an advanced method for calculation of self-absorption correction developed.
The aim of this task is to produce prototype radioactive gas monitoring systems for 3H and 14C ready for commercial development and marketing by a manufacturer. This will be achieved by exploiting the radioactive gas trapping, separation and counting technologies developed in JRP ENV09. This will involve the miniaturisation of the ‘integrating’ LSC-based monitoring system and the incorporation of a commercial real-time gas monitor into the gas separation system. The gas monitoring systems will be calibrated with standardised 3H- and 14C-labelled gases, and also exposed to known activity concentrations of 222Rn to determine their response to ambient radon.
The involvement of commercial instrument manufacturers in the JRP will be sought. Further, use of solid scintillators for gas counting will be investigated. Scintillating crystals (i.e. YAP or microspheres) will be tested to this purpose.
The aim of this task is to take the instrument developed in JRP ENV09 to the next phase, i.e. to carry out field measurements. The instrument measures the concentration of radiocarbon gaseous emissions through the detection of radiocarbon dioxide. All carbonic gaseous emissions will be converted into CO2 through catalytic burning. Among those emissions, it is of particular interest to monitor the emissions of radio methane (14CH4), as this organic compound has more severe effects on health than 14CO2. The spectroscope is based on a technique called cavity ring-down spectroscopy, a spectroscopic technique providing very high sensitivity due to an absorption path length of several kilometres. The absorption lines of the different CO2 isotopes (in the mid-infrared wavelength region) are identified and can be used to measure the concentration of each isotope (for example 14CO2). The instrument will be adapted for field measurement; in particular, sampling and purification techniques will be implemented.
The aim of this task is to study the metrological performances of Distributed Temperature Sensing techniques (DTS) based on the use of optical fibres, which will be used for monitoring of nuclear waste repositories (deep geological or above-ground) thanks to the development of new radiation resistant optical fibres. This will include the development of methods and procedures for the metrological characterisation (e.g. temperature performance, spatial resolution and influencing parameters) of DTS systems, and to propose potential in-situ temperature calibration methods. The studied DTS systems (composed by an optical interrogator device and an optical fibre) will be provided by the two unfunded JRP-Partners of this JRP: ANDRA and EDF.
Practical Acoustic Thermometry (PAT) has previously been demonstrated in the Metrofission JRP as a candidate for radiation-resistant temperature sensors operating at high temperatures (up to 1000 °C). The aim of this task is to develop PAT technology and analysis for applications where temperature sensing is required in large extended volumes (e.g. throughout a storage tank, large building or underground facility).
The PAT ‘sensor’ is simply a tube (technically an acoustic waveguide) typically with a diameter in the range 5 – 25 mm and lengths in the range from a metre to hundreds of metres. The key strength of PAT technology is its simplicity and robustness. This means it is likely to remain functional for extremely long periods: decades to centuries – because it is simply a tube. Tubes can be made of appropriate materials to resist both physical damage (hitting with a hammer is quite possible) and radiation (MGray doses are possible). A wide range of materials may be used for the waveguide including the possibility of tubes being ‘cast’ in either a concrete or metal infrastructure. Importantly the tube can be any shape and can be wrapped around objects of interest.
During operation the gas within the tube is replaced with a gas of known composition, typically argon or dry air, and transit times for sound pulses passing through the tube are determined. Time can be related to the free-field speed of sound which has a direct interpretation in terms of thermodynamic temperature. Intrinsically the technique returns the average temperature along the length of the acoustic waveguide, and this would be complementary to a fibre optic technique for Distributed Temperature Sensing. A PAT test system will be built and tested over a period of months.
The aim of this task is to demonstrate the feasibility of a traceable calorimetric method for the direct measurement of thermal power (up to 500 W) of real size radioactive waste packages (from 0.175 m3 up to 2 m3) with an uncertainty of <5 %. This will involve the design of a prototype of large-volume calorimeter for packages of at least 0.175 m3, the establishment of calibration protocols and the evaluation of uncertainties of thermal power measurements. ANDRA will be consulted as end user in order to define the main characteristics (e.g. dimensions, thermal power) of the radioactive waste packages for which they need to measure the thermal power.
Task 5.1: Reference materials and standard sources for segregation of materials and for free release measurement
The aim of this task is to develop appropriate reference materials and standard sources for testing and calibration of free release measurement facility, testing facility for segregation of materials and testing facility for scanning of wastes.
The aim of this task is to develop standard sources and reference materials for radiochemical analyses with the instrumentation developed in WP1. This includes a wide range of alpha, beta and gamma emitting radionuclides and will build on the reference materials and standards developed in the JRP ENV09 which included solid matrix standards based on concrete. The list of potential radionuclides is drawn from radionuclides that are significant in waste disposal, in that they persist in significant quantities beyond 100 years:
14C, 36Cl, 53Mn, 59Ni, 63Ni,93Zr, 93Mo, 99Tc, 107Pd, 113mCd, 135Cs, 137Cs, 226Ra, 236U, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu,
Reference materials for use within this JRP are necessarily limited by two constraints: (i) any material produced can only be for use within this JRP, and (ii) the absolute maximum sample size for radiochemical analysis is 10 grams. Since such reference materials are solely for use in WP1, it is therefore proposed that fully characterised reference materials are not produced, but blank (i.e. non-radioactive) materials are made so that individual aliquots may be spiked with standardised solutions and then analysed. Reference materials will be produced to reflect the materials expected to be produced in large quantities by decommissioning activities across Europe. These are (i) concrete, (ii) steel, and (iii) blank graphite.
The aim of this task is to develop standardised, traceable radioactive gaseous atmospheres for the radionuclides 3H and 14C at 0.05 – 5 MBq m-3. These are needed for active testing of the monitoring systems to be developed in Tasks 4.1 and 4.2. Additionally, the responses of the systems to 222Rn at 0.1 – 5 kBq m-3 must be determined, as repositories will have a 222Rn background. The work will also include development of suitable methods for exposure of the monitors to the gases (e.g. small vessels suitable for connection to a monitor, or a calibration chamber in which to enclose a monitor).
The aim of this task is to develop standard sources for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. Surface contamination monitoring is an important tool for radiological characterisation of nuclear facilities, for clearing potentially contaminated waste items and for radiation protection. Regulatory documents require surface contamination to be stated in terms of activity per unit area (Bq/cm2). Despite their simplicity, surface contamination measurements (both for alpha and beta emitters) are subject to very high uncertainties and it is difficult to demonstrate their traceability due especially to the subjective nature of surface contamination monitoring using hand-held instruments.
The aim of this task is to ensure that the JRP research results will be effectively transferred to stakeholders and end-users.
The aim of this task is to organise targeted training course for stakeholders and end-users and research stays for early-stage researchers.
The aim of this task is to ensure that the results of the JRP are exploited to the benefit of nuclear decommissioning operators, manufacturers and other involved researchers, technicians and end-users. The knowledge generated will consist of two different types: open knowledge that any interested party will have access to and benefit from and which will be disseminated freely; and specific knowledge developed by JRP-Participants.
The IP outputs of the JRP will be available to JRP-Partners, and will be agreed as part of the JRP-Consortium Agreement.
The JRP-Coordinator, Jiri Suran, acting as the representative of the CMI and the Project Management Board, will be the reference point for the project for both the JRP-Partners and EURAMET. The JRP-Coordinator will have an assistant who help him with administrative work and meeting organisation.
The Work package leaders will manage their work packages and will be responsible for all scientific and technical objectives and deliverables fulfilment.
The Contact persons as representatives of the JRP-Partners will lead particular Tasks and cooperate with their WP leader to ensure that the planned work will be fully accomplished according to the project timescale.
The Project Management Board (PMB) makes final decisions during project realisation and will consist of the JRP-Coordinator and the WP leaders. Other experts can be included in the Board if needed. The PMB is led by the JRP-Coordinator
REG(ENVINET) has strong links with the JRP-Partner CMI. The WP3 leader will manage the technical work within the REG and JRP-Coordinator will supervise the interaction with JRP-Consortium. The REG will report according to the same schedule as the other JRP-Partners. JRP-Coordinator with workpackage leaders will also ensure interaction and information exchange with collaborators
The aim of this task is for the JRP-Participants to discuss and agree the progress of the JRP, including work that has been completed and planned future work, so that decisions can be made about future tasks ensuring that all JRP-Participants are aware of what is required from them.
Formal reporting will be in line with EURAMET requirements and timescales. All reports will be submitted in accordance with the JRP Reporting Guidelines.
Each WP leader will provide a summary of the status of their WP showing progress against the original schedule, indicating, if appropriate, where corrective actions may be necessary. Periodic reports will be will be compiled and prepared by the JRP-Coordinator, based on input from all JRP-Partners and RGs. These reports will include a detailed summary of the results achieved, the problems encountered and the solutions found, plus the impact and dissemination activities carried out.